Why Diabetes are Different From Each Other?

Overview

Many people find it difficult to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, while both of these are very different from each other. Generally, people do not know how these two types of diabetes differ from each other.
Despite posing a lot of similar problems to the patients, these two types of diabetes have a lot of differences, like the causes, people who are more at risk and the ways to manage them. There are two more types of diabetes – gestational and Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), but here we are going to be discussing mainly the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. To begin with, type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than its other variant. As per a study, about 90 percent of the total diabetes patients suffer from type 2 diabetes, while about 8 percent of them suffer from type 1. Despite both the diseases being very different from each other, they both are very serious and if you do not maintain your blood sugar levels in adults, you may suffer very serious complications and even death. Hence, taking the right precautionary measures to control these conditions is very critical.

What Basic Differences Do Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes Have?

Below, we have tried to sum up the basic differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Have a look –
Areas of difference Type 1 Type 2
What is happening? Your own immune system attacks your cells in the pancreas, making your body incapable of producing insulin. Your body either doesn’t produce enough insulin or is unable to understand how to regulate the produced insulin properly.
Risk factors Scientists are still trying to ascertain the reason behind type 1 diabetes. Researchers are still trying to find out the actual reasons but they have understood that excess weight and ethnicity are two major reasons behind it.
Symptoms The symptoms in type 1 diabetes become visible at the very beginning. Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes may not be noticeable until the situation gets worse.
Management In it, the patient has to take insulin to keep blood sugar levels under control. There are multiple ways to manage type 2 diabetes that include taking medications, doing adequate amounts of exercise, having a balanced diet and taking insulin if prescribed by the doctor.
Cure and Prevention Type 1 diabetes is an incurable disease till date. Research is underway to find a cure. Similarly, type 2 diabetes is also incurable but many cases have shown that it can be prevented and put into remission.

What happens in type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

If you have any of the two types of diabetes, it means that you have a lot of glucose (a type of sugar) in your bloodstream. The main difference these two have is how these happen. If you have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, it means that you have developed an autoimmune condition. In this condition, your own immune system becomes unable to understand the difference between the harmful foreign invaders like bacterias and viruses and your own healthy cells. Eventually, it kills the cells in your pancreas that are responsible for producing a hormone called insulin. Hence, you become incapable of producing insulin anymore. Insulin is a very important hormone that transports sugar from our blood to the cells of the body. Then the body’s cells use this sugar for energy. As you do not have insulin in the body, the glucose levels keep increasing in your blood. Type 2 diabetes has a completely different cause. In it, either your body stops insulin production or becomes incapable of regulating it properly. This condition is known as insulin resistance. This leads to increased blood glucose levels in the patient.

Are The Risk Factors Different For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

There is still research going on to find the actual reason behind type 1 diabetes, but the risk factors have already been ascertained. Therefore, we can probably predict who is more susceptible to suffer from which type of diabetes. These, however, are still not very accurate. So, consulting a doctor to check your risk is recommended.

Type 1

The biggest difference between the two types is that type 1 diabetes is not the result of your lifestyle or your weight. Hence, changing your lifestyle or managing your body weight are not going to reduce your risk of developing type 1 diabetes. People below the age of 40 are more susceptible to suffering from it, especially children. Generally, duiabetic children suffer from type 1 only. Despite being less common, people above the age of 40 can also suffer from it.

Type 2

Studies have proven that certain things put you at a bigger risk of developing type 2 diabetes, such as –
  • Family history
  • Ethnic background
  • Age
  • Extra body weight or obesity
It has also been proven that by doing certain adjustments in your lifestyle, you can cut down your risk by a huge margin. Adjustments like having a balanced diabetic diet every time, doing an adequate amount of physical activities and maintaining a healthy body weight can help you in preventing type 2 diabetes. It is more common among people above the age of 40 years but it is quickly becoming more common among younger people too.

Symptoms Of Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

As we have already said, both the types of diabetes share very similar symptoms. Have a look –
  • Frequent urge to urinate, especially at night
  • Always feeling thirsty
  • Always feeling tired
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Itching around the genital area
  • Healing of wounds taking longer than normal
  • Blurry vision
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share similar symptoms but they may differ in terms of how they appear. Type 1 starts showing symptoms right away as the body doesn’t have any insulin to execute the other functions. Hence, it is almost impossible to ignore it. This is really important because if you ignore the symptoms, it can cause diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). On the other hand, type 2 diabetes may remain unnoticed for a long period of time and only appear when the condition gets worse. It happens because in the early stages, it develops gradually over a period of time. Therefore, it is tough to spot the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. This is why you must pay attention to the risk factors of developing type 2 diabetes so that you can make the necessary changes in your lifestyle beforehand and stay safe. There are many people who suffer from diabetes and do not have any idea about it. In some cases, people had it for up to 10 years without noticing.

Can Type 1 Or Type 2 Be Cured Or Prevented?

Unfortunately, both, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, are incurable to date. Research is under process to find a cure for these conditions. There is nothing you can do to prevent or cure type 1 diabetes, but people with type 2 diabetes can put their diabetes into remission by losing some extra kilos, especially from their abdominal area. Putting yourself on a low-calorie diet, but only under medical observation, can also produce great results.

Takeaway

There are multiple differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and the best way to prevent these incurable diseases is to be as educated about these as possible. You are also advised to keep in touch with your doctor on a regular basis for risk evaluation.
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